What a great season everyone, and THANK YOU for your support! No significant skier triggered avalanches reported for the 2018/2019 season. Let's keep up the diligence and reflection that is required to stay alive in avalanche terrain.
The spring melt/freeze (m/f) cycle continues, with occasional interruptions by mild winter storms which have been windy and mostly dry. Since March 23rd we've only seen about 6" of new snow near treeline. Total season snowfall is about 130% of average.
Wet avalanches will be possible on steep slopes where the snowpack melts from warm days, sunshine, above-freezing overnight temperatures, and/or rain. Watch for saturated and deep slushy snow around terrain traps and any slope steeper than 30°. Warm temperatures and consistent nights with above freezing temperatures will precede an unstable and wet snowpack. If you sink into the snow up to or above your boot top, then it is time to reevaluate your plan.
Last known significant slab avalanches occurred in February. More recently, during March and April, D1.5 (destructive size) loose wet avalanche debris were observed on southeasterly slopes near/above treeline, and on April 9th D1.5 debris were observed on a northerly aspect below treeline. D1.5 avalanches are relatively small but can be strong enough to injure and possibly kill an animal/person.
June 2019 Addendum: Two human triggered (ski/snowboard) avalanches occured in late May and early June of 2019. These were likely new snow/wet slab releases during warming events after a late May snowstorm.
Near and Above TreelineExpect to find wind scoured zones and hard icy snow above treeline. Crampons and ice axes will help prevent falls on steep icy slopes.
If we do get a significant snow event, watch for new storm/wind slab development. When the sun and warmth return post-storm, new slabs will be the first to saturate and possibly produce wet avalanches.
Below TreelineCoverage is good on most slopes above 10,000', with plenty of safer low angle (<30°) touring. Southerly and sunny slopes are rapidly losing snow as we push into spring.
As the days heat up, watch for loose wet and larger wet slab avalanche potential. Wet avalanche debris were observed recently on a north aspect of Doyle Peak, near 10,500'. See previous summary. There was a report last week of wet avalanche debris below the Heck Yea chute - a southeasterly slope at 12'000'.
Rain on snow can produce wet avalanches.
"Heating happens fast this time of year, with snow changing in a matter of minutes. Watch for the usual signs of wet instability including roller balls, point releases, and damp, heavy, loose snow. You’ll need to constantly monitor snow surface conditions […] Keep in mind what you’ll be traveling under as you exit the mountains [during the heat of the day]" -Utah Avalanche Center
Cornices have formed along ridgelines and cross loaded features. Stay away from the edges of tall and/or overhung cornices, as these may collapse unexpectedly and break further back than you may expect. Cornices loose strength and collapse during warm spring weather. Image of cornices in the April 5th summary.
If we do get a significant snow event, watch for new storm/wind slab development near and above treeline. Pay attention to snowfall amounts, wind, and bonding of new/old snow. New slabs may have a hard time bonding to cold frozen m/f crusts. These crusts have formed on all aspects. When the sun and warmth return post-storm, new slabs will be the first to saturate and possibly produce wet avalanches.
Logging began along the first 1/4 mile of Freidlein Prairie Road (FR-522). Loggers will plow that stretch of road and need gate access. This is part of the Chimney Springs thinning project.
Snowbowl recorded 4 inches of new snow and windy conditions on Friday April 12. Another lonely inch fell on Tuesday April 16. With the passing of these weak cold fronts to our north, we have seen sporadic winds out of the southwest and then shifting to northwest and north. Between storms, spring conditions have prevailed.
For the weekend and early workweek, expect favorable spring conditions, interrupted by a slight cool-own, more wind and potentially light precipitation on Monday, April 22. This will be followed by a building high pressure ridge and a return to cool nights, warn day’s and breezy afternoons. This springtime pattern will continue with the occasional low pressure trough passing to our north delivering wind, mid and high level clouds and an occasion light dusting of high elevation snow.
On Thursday, April 18 the Inner Basin SNOTEL site (Snowslide) reported a snow depth of 42” (107 cm) at 9,730 feet. Arizona Snowbowl reported a settled base of 81” (206 cm) at 10,800 feet. So far this winter, 332" (843 cm) of snow has fallen at the mid-mountain study site. Since April 12, SNOTEL temperatures have ranged between 16°F on April 13, and 55°F on April 18. At ASBTP (11,555'), temperatures reported over the last week were between 15°F on April 13, and 52°F on April 18.
This has been a great winter. According to Snowbowl records from the mid-mountain study site (10,800’), this winter has been the 4th snowiest in 2 decades.
The avalanche problem/character describes part of the current avalanche danger. However because we only realease a summary once a week, the current avalanche problem will likely change.
Understanding avalanche problems is essential, because it allows you to determine your approach and strategies to risk treatment. Below are brief descriptions of avalanche problems/characters, and links to detailed information on the problem, formation, patterns, recognition, and avoidance strategies.
Avalanche Problems Explained Also see the North American Danger Scale.
Release of dry unconsolidated snow. These avalanches typically occur within layers of soft snow near the surface of the snowpack. Loose-dry avalanches start at a point and entrain snow as they move downhill, forming a fan-shaped avalanche. Other names for loose-dry avalanches include point-release avalanches or sluffs. Loose-dry avalanches can trigger slab avalanches that break into deeper snow layers.
Loose Dry avalanches are usually relatively harmless to people. They can be hazardous if you are caught and carried into or over a terrain trap (e.g. gully, rocks, dense timber, cliff, crevasse) or down a long slope. Avoid traveling in or above terrain traps when Loose Dry avalanches are likely.
Release of a soft cohesive layer (a slab) of new snow that breaks within the storm snow or on the old snow surface. Storm-slab problems typically last between a few hours and few days. Storm-slabs that form over a persistent weak layer (surface hoar, depth hoar, or near-surface facets) may be termed Persistent Slabs or may develop into Persistent Slabs.
You can reduce your risk from Storm Slabs by waiting a day or two after a storm before venturing into steep terrain. Storm slabs are most dangerous on slopes with terrain traps, such as timber, gullies, over cliffs, or terrain features that make it difficult for a rider to escape off the side.
Release of a cohesive layer of snow (a slab) formed by the wind.
Wind typically transports snow from the upwind sides of terrain features and deposits snow on the downwind side.
Wind slabs are often smooth and rounded and sometimes sound hollow, and can range from soft to hard.
Wind slabs that form over a persistent weak layer (surface hoar, depth hoar, or near-surface facets) may be termed Persistent Slabs or may develop into Persistent Slabs.
Wind Slabs form in specific areas, and are confined to lee and cross-loaded terrain features.
They can be avoided by sticking to sheltered or wind-scoured areas.
Release of a cohesive layer of soft to hard snow (a slab) in the middle to upper snowpack, when the bond to an underlying persistent weak layer breaks. Persistent layers include: surface hoar, depth hoar, near-surface facets, or faceted snow.
Persistent weak layers can continue to produce avalanches for days, weeks or even months, making them especially dangerous and tricky. As additional snow and wind events build a thicker slab on top of the persistent weak layer, this avalanche problem may develop into a Deep Persistent Slab.
The best ways to manage the risk from Persistent Slabs is to make conservative terrain choices.
They can be triggered by light loads and weeks after the last storm.
The slabs often propagate in surprising and unpredictable ways.
This makes this problem difficult to predict and manage and requires a wide safety buffer to handle the uncertainty.
Deep Persistent Slab
Release of a thick cohesive layer of hard snow (a slab), when the bond breaks between the slab and an underlying persistent weak layer, deep in the snowpack or near the ground.
The most common persistent weak layers involved in deep, persistent slabs are depth hoar or facets surrounding a deeply buried crust. Deep Persistent Slabs are typically hard to trigger, are very destructive and dangerous due to the large mass of snow involved, and can persist for months once developed. They are often triggered from areas where the snow is shallow and weak, and are particularly difficult to forecast for and manage.
They commonly develop when Persistent Slabs become more deeply buried over time.
Deep Persistent Slabs are destructive and deadly events that can take months to stabilize.
You can trigger them from well down in the avalanche path, and after dozens of tracks have crossed the slope.
Release of wet unconsolidated snow or slush. These avalanches typically occur within layers of wet snow near the surface of the snowpack, but they may quickly gouge into lower snowpack layers.
Like Loose Dry Avalanches, they start at a point and entrain snow as they move downhill, forming a fan-shaped avalanche. They generally move slowly, but can contain enough mass to cause significant damage to trees, cars or buildings. Other names for loose-wet avalanches include point-release avalanches or sluffs. Loose Wet avalanches can trigger slab avalanches that break into deeper snow layers.
Travel when the snow surface is colder and stronger. Plan your trips to avoid crossing on or under very steep slopes in the afternoon. Move to colder, shadier slopes once the snow surface turns slushly. Avoid steep, sunlit slopes above terrain traps, cliffs areas and long sustained steep pitches.
Release of a cohesive layer of snow (a slab) that is generally moist or wet when the flow of liquid water weakens the bond between the slab and the surface below (snow or ground). They often occur during prolonged warming events and/or rain-on-snow events. Wet Slabs can be very destructive.
Avoid terrain where and when you suspect Wet Slab avalanche activity. Give yourself a wide safety buffer to handle the uncertainty.
Cornice Fall is the release of an overhanging mass of snow that forms as the wind moves snow over a sharp terrain feature, such as a ridge, and deposits snow on the downwind (leeward) side.
Cornices range in size from small wind lips of soft snow to large overhangs of hard snow that are 30 feet (10 meters) or taller. They can break off the terrain suddenly and pull back onto the ridge top and catch people by surprise even on the flat ground above the slope. Even small cornices can have enough mass to be destructive and deadly. Cornice Fall can entrain loose surface snow or trigger slab avalanches.
Cornices can never be trusted and avoiding them is necessary for safe backcountry travel. Stay well back from ridge line areas with cornices. They often overhang the ridge edge can be triggered remotely. Avoid areas underneath cornices. Even small Cornice Fall can trigger a larger avalanche and large Cornice Fall can easily crush a human. Periods of significant temperature warm-up are times to be particularly aware.
Large cornices are generally rare in Arizona, but they have been observed during very snowy winters.
Release of the entire snow cover as a result of gliding over the ground. Glide avalanches can be composed of wet, moist, or almost entirely dry snow. They typically occur in very specific paths, where the slope is steep enough and the ground surface is relatively smooth. The are often proceeded by full depth cracks (glide cracks), though the time between the appearance of a crack and an avalanche can vary between seconds and months. Glide avalanches are unlikely to be triggered by a person, are nearly impossible to forecast, and thus pose a hazard that is extremely difficult to manage.
Predicting the release of Glide Avalanches is very challenging. Because Glide Avalanches only occur on very specific slopes, safe travel relies on identifying and avoiding those slopes. Glide cracks are a significant indicator, as are recent Glide Avalanches.
Glide avalanches are very uncommon in Arizona.
Snowpack Summary Disclaimer
The summaries on this site were written by Kachina Peaks Avalanche Center Board Members. They are based on a broad spectrum of data collected from weather stations, National Weather Service point forecasts and field observation by qualified individuals.
The summaries are not intended to substitute for good knowledge and decision making skills in avalanche terrain. If you have any doubt of stable conditions, please stay away from avalanche terrain. You can usually find good places to go that are not prone to avalanches, such as on low angle slopes away from avalanche run-out zones. If you have any questions about where to find such places, you should consider further avalanche educational opportunities, such as those listed on our education page.
Snowpack Summary – Format and Limitations Statement
Starting in 2012 Kachina Peaks Avalanche Center (KPAC) has publish a weekly Snowpack Summary on our website.
These summaries are currently issued on Friday afternoons. On occasion, we will give storm updates or warnings of rapidly increasing avalanche hazard at more frequent intervals.
Our objective is to reach weekend recreationist, informing this user group of prevailing conditions, but particularly warning of avalanche hazards whenever they are present.
Many people have asked us why we use the format we do, but do not include a danger rating or a hazard/stability rose as many other avalanche centers do around the west.
The National Avalanche Center (NAC) advises small operations like KPAC, who do not issue daily bulletins to not use danger ratings in our snowpack summaries due to the regular but intermittent nature of their field observations and the length of time between issuance of snowpack summaries.
A primary concern is for how conditions can change in the time between publications, potentially giving the public misleading information. At this point, we simply do not have resources to monitor the snowpack at the level necessary to accurately produce more frequent bulletins.
While we understand the benefits of a danger rating using the North American Danger Scale, we also feel that our format encourages people to dig in a little deeper, and spend some time reading what our forecasters are saying. Although the area that we forecast is relatively small, the variability has proven quite large.
Inner Basin conditions are often surprisingly different from those on the more wind-affected western side on the Peaks.
We hope the information that we provide in summaries helps give you a good overview of what is going on out there, and what avalanche problems you should be attentive to, but if there is any uncertainty, then we encourage you to ask questions via Facebook or email@example.com.